Welcome to the webpage of the FUSÉE Lab at the Department of Software and IT Engineering, ÉTS Montréal (University of Québec). FUSÉE is a research group composed primarily of graduate students, established in 2017 by Dr. Kaiwen Zhang. Our mission is to study and build distributed systems based on five aspects:

FUSÉE Properties
  • Fast, high-velocity, Big Data processing to achieve online analytics.
  • Unified and secure event-based frameworks for domains such as social networks, Internet of Things, online gaming.
  • Scalable distributed and decentralized systems to handle large volumes of data and users.
  • Event processing to support streaming operations such as aggregation, top-k filtering, and complex event detection.
  • Event messaging using the publish/subscribe abstraction for decoupled networked interactions.

Research Projects

Blockchain Layers

Practical Blockchain & DLT

Blockchain-based distributed ledger technology (DLT) processes and disseminates transaction events in a decentralized network. Our objective is to achieve the right balance of decentralization, consistency, and scalability to meet the requirements of important domains such as eHealth, IoT, and Smart Grids.

Unified Pub/Sub Architecture

Expressive Publish/Subscribe

Modern applications (e.g. social networks, sensor networks) require advanced analytics over real-time streams of events. We strive to support these expressive features without compromising performance or scalability by integrating lightweight distributed processing techniques into the publish/subscribe communication substrate.

Interest Management

Networked Game Engines

Networked games require low-latency, reliable, and cheat-resistant communication between players. We aim to develop scalable infrastructures for highly-interactive online games. By leveraging game semantics, such as player profiles and the virtual environment, we can achieve the right trade-off between consistency and performance.


Principal Investigator

Kaiwen Zhang Portrait

Kaiwen Zhang is an Associate Professor in the Department of Software and IT Engineering at ÉTS Montréal (University of Québec). Previously, he was an Alexander von Humboldt postdoctoral fellow in Computer Science at the TU Munich (2015-2017) and a member of the Middleware Systems Research Group. Dr. Zhang obtained his B.Sc. and M.Sc. at McGill University in Montréal and his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto. His research interests include blockchain technologies, publish/subscribe systems, massively multiplayer online games, and software-defined networking. Dr. Zhang's expertise lies at the intersection of distributed systems, networking, and data management. His research is published in premier distributed systems conferences such as IEEE ICDCS and ACM Middleware.

Faculty Members

Research Associate Members

  • Dr. Reza Nourmohammadi, Ph.D.: Towards Secure and Reliable Decentralized Machine Learning.

Student Members

  • Zeinab Alipanahloo, Ph.D.: Layer 2 Scaling for Public Blockchains.
  • Zahra Batool, Ph.D.: Fair and Traceable Federated Learning. Co-supervised with Matthew Toews.
  • Joel Poncha Lemayian, Ph.D.: Hardware Acceleration for Blockchain Components. Co-supervised with Pascal Giard.
  • Mohammad-Amin Najaflou, Ph.D.: Reputation System for Decentralized Applications.
  • Muhammad KaleemUllah Khan, Ph.D.: Privacy-Preserving Artificial Intelligence. Co-supervised with Chamseddine Talhi.
  • Muneem Shabir, Ph.D.: Hardware Technologies for Blockchains.
  • Sion Israel Sion, Ph.D.: Composable Services for Decentralized Applications. Co-supervised with Alain April.
  • Rodrigue Tonga, Ph.D.: Security in Smart Contracts and Blockchain Systems.
  • Amal Yousfi, M.A.Sc.: Applied Blockchain Technologies for Real Estate.
  • Oumayma Dekhil, M.A.Sc.: Mixing Service Detection for Bitcoin.
  • Mikaeel Mayeli, M.A.Sc.: Layer 2 Scaling and Reliability.
  • Fatma Najjar, M.A.Sc.: Heuristics for Bitcoin Address Aggregation.
  • Kamyar Rostami, M.A.Sc.: Blockchain-Based Continuous Validation for Credentials.
  • Mohammadreza Sabramooz, M.A.Sc.: Blockchain-Based Online Games.
  • Aamar Shahzad, M.A.Sc.: Privacy-Preserving Federated Learning using CCF.
  • Thierry Fokou Toukam, M.A.Sc.: Stream Processing at the Edge for Transportation Scenarios. Co-supervised with Julien Gascon-Samson.
  • Shahin Zakizadeh, M.A.Sc.: Evaluating Layer 2 Scaling Solutions for Enhanced Blockchain Interoperability.

Former Members

  • (2024) Sarra Fekih, M.A.Sc.: Traceability in Live Lobsters Supply Chains.
  • (2024) Steven Gourgue, M.Eng.: Interest Management for Mobile Games. Co-supervised with Julien Gascon-Samson.
  • (2023) Dr. Syed Muhammad Danish: Blockchain for Energy Markets.
  • (2023) Dr. Yahya Shahsavari: Proof-of-Entropy Consensus of Quantum Blockchains.
  • (2023) Suhail Kandanur, Ph.D.: Large-Scale Dynamic Graph Processing and Event Notification. Co-supervised with Bettina Kemme.
  • (2023) Andrii Shulhin, Ph.D. (SUTE): Tech-Law Synergy: A Roadmap for Blockchain Regulatory Compliance.
  • (2023) Michael Duchesne, M.A.Sc.: Towards Practical Decentralized Machine Learning.
  • (2023) Gabriel Hardy, M.A.Sc.: Data Center Infrastructures for DLT. Co-supervised with Pascal Giard.
  • (2023) Mahtab Norouzi, M.A.Sc.: Honeypots Detection in Ethereum.
  • (2023) Sion Israel Sion, M.A.Sc.: Towards Service-Oriented Oracles for Blockchains. Co-supervised with Alain April.
  • (2023) Étienne Donneger, M.Eng.: Data Extraction for Public Blockchain Networks.
  • (2023) Sam Khosrowshahi, M.Eng.: Decentralized Social Networks using Lens Protocol.
  • (2023) Helwan Mandé, B.Eng.: Tokenization of physical arts.
  • (2023) Khalil Anis Zabat, B.Eng.: Tokenization of real estate markets.
  • (2023) Kshitij Jha (IIT Delhi), B.Eng.: Aggregation for Decentralized Machine Learning.
  • (2023) Aryan Shukla (IIT Jammu), B.Eng.: Aggregation for Decentralized Machine Learning.
  • (2022) Dr. Aamir Shahzad: Blockchain for Industry 4.0.
  • (2022) Reza Nourmohammadi, Ph.D.: Self-Tuning Blockchain Systems.
  • (2022) Yahya Shahsavari, Ph.D.: Performance Modeling, Analysis, and Tuning of Blockchain Networks. Co-supervised with Chamseddine Talhi.
  • (2022) Syed Muhammad Danish, Ph.D.: Middleware Services for Blockchain-IoT Applications. Co-supervised with Hans-Arno Jacobsen.
  • (2022) Rodrigue Tonga, M.A.Sc.: Online Platform for Data Security in the Energy Sector.
  • (2022) Aimene Akkouche, B.Sc. (Grenoble INP): Sustainable NFT Platform for Physical Arts.
  • (2022) Samuel Wake-Watson, B.Sc. (Durham): Layer 2 Scaling for PoW Blockchains.
  • (2021) Sardar Basiri, M.A.Sc.: Combat-Optimized Network Engine for Multiplayer Games. Co-supervised with Stéphane Coulombe.
  • (2021) Louis Chavez-Cléroux, M.Eng.: Key Distribution System Encryption for Secure International Transmissions. Co-supervised with Pascal Giard.
  • (2021) Eduardo Furtado, M.Eng.: Secure Electronic Voting.
  • (2021) Emna Hammemi, M.A.Sc.: Serverless Adapters for Decentralized Oracles. Co-supervised with Abdelouahed Gherbi.
  • (2021) Mario Munoz, M.A.Sc.: Chain of Custody Traceability using Smart Contracts. Co-supervised with Mustapha Ouhimmou.
  • (2021) Subhasish Goswami, B.Eng. (TEZU): Modeling Blockchain Oracles.
  • (2021) Samin Sadri, M.A.Sc.: Blockchain-Driven Auditability in Health Information Systems.
  • (2021) Hrishabh Sharma, B.Eng. (SVNIT): Modeling the MVCC Problem in Hyperledger Fabric.
  • (2021) Devansh Swarup, B.Eng. (SRMIST): Decentralized Oracle Networks.
  • (2021) Helmi Trabelsi, M.A.Sc.: Reducing MVCC Conflicts in Hyperledger Fabric.
  • (2020) Thomas Maketa, Ph.D.: Consent-Driven Remittance over a Blockchain Network. Co-supervised with Alain April.
  • (2020) Wiem Badreddine, M.A.Sc.: Blockchain-Based Data Monetization for IoT. Co-supervised with Chamseddine Talhi. Best Master's Thesis Award.
  • (2020) Alaa Eddine Chouchane, M.A.Sc.: Privacy-Compliant Data Collection using Blockchains. Co-supervised with Chamseddine Talhi.
  • (2020) Sonia Slimani, M.A.Sc.: Real-Time Ad Exchange using Latency-Aware Publish/Subscribe.
  • (2020) Shiquan Zhang, M.Sc. (McGill): Modeling Selfish Mining Games. Co-supervised with Bettina Kemme.
  • (2020) Jean-François Corriveau, B.Eng.: Tracking the Carbon Footprint of Merchandise Delivery. Co-supervised with Pascal Giard.
  • (2019) Jorge Choqueneira, M.Eng.: Cross-Currency Payments over the Ethereum Network.
  • (2019) Adrien Gasté, M.Eng.: Object Caching for Interactive Web Applications. Co-supervised with Julien Gascon-Samson.
  • (2019) Étienne Boudreault-Pilon, B.Eng.: Smart Contracts for Letter of Credit. Co-supervised with Mustapha Ouhimmou, Bora Ung.
  • (2019) Helmi Trabelsi, B.Sc. (Sup'Com): Data Tokenization using Hyperledger Fabric.
  • (2018) Jelena Pacic, M.Sc. (TUM): EVA - Electrical Vehicle Charging using Blockchains. Github.
  • (2018) Daniel Sel, M.Sc. (TUM): Data Availability Problem in Sharded Ethereum.
  • (2018) Lyubomir-Leo Stoykov, M.Sc. (TUM): VIBES - Visualizing Interactive Blockchain Extended Simulations. Github.
  • (2017) Shankar Mohan Sathya, M.Sc. (TUM): Benchmarking Industrial Big Data Systems.
  • (2017) Jingyi Wang, M.Sc. (TUM): CSAIM - Combat State-Aware Interest Management. Github.
  • (2017) Nejc Zupan, M.Sc. (TUM): HyperPubSub - Federated Publish/Subscribe using Blockchains.

External Collaborators

Selected Publications

Full publication list @ Espace ÉTS

  • Blockchain for Energy Credits and Certificates: A Comprehensive Review
    Syed Muhammad Danish, Kaiwen Zhang, Fatima Amara, Juan Carlos Oviedo Cepeda, Luis Fernando Rueda Vasquez, Tom Marynowski. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Computing.
  • Multi-Confederated Learning: Inclusive Non-IID Data handling with Decentralized Federated Learning
    Michael Duchesne, Kaiwen Zhang and Talhi Chamseddine. ACM SAC 2024. Acceptance rate: 24.1%.
  • Block-RACS: Towards Reputation-Aware Client Selection and Monetization Mechanism for Federated Learning
    Zahra Batool, Kaiwen Zhang, Matthew Toews. ACM SIGAPP Applied Computing Review.
  • B-ROSCA: A smart contract-based selection of ROSCA communities using collateral
    Zahra Batool, Sion Israel Sion, Rodrigue Tonga Naha, Kaiwen Zhang. IEEE DAPPS 2023.
  • Towards Citizen-Centric Services using Blockchain-Powered Digitalization of Public Sector Processes
    Sion Israel Sion, Kaiwen Zhang, Alain April. IEEE BCCA 2023.
  • Qwallet: A Hybrid Cryptocurrency Wallet using Quantum RNG
    Muhammad Muneem Shabir, Kaiwen Zhang. IEEE BCCA 2023.
  • The Greed Trap: Uncovering Intrinsic Ethereum Honeypots through Symbolic Execution
    Mahtab Norouzi, Mounir Elgharabawy, Kaiwen Zhang. IEEE BCCA 2023.
  • BlockQoS: Fair Monetization of On-Demand Quality-of-Service using Blockchains
    Muhammad Muneem Shabir, Syed Muhammad Danish, Kaiwen Zhang. ACM DLT.
  • An On-Chain Governance Model Based on Particle Swarm Optimization for Reducing Blockchain Forks
    Reza Nourmohammadi, Kaiwen Zhang. IEEE Access.
  • Sharding and Its Impact on Fork Probability
    Reza Nourmohammadi, Kaiwen Zhang. IEEE iGETblockchain 2022.
  • Block-FeST: A Blockchain-Based Federated Anomaly Detection Framework With Computation Offloading Using Transformers
    Zahra Batool, Kaiwen Zhang, Zhongwen Zhu, Sarang Aravamuthan and Ulrich Aïvodji. IEEE iGETblockchain 2022.
  • Modeling the Fork Probability of Blockchains: Did EIP-1559 Improve Ethereum?
    Reza Nourmohammadi, Kaiwen Zhang. IEEE BCCA 2022.
  • Performance modeling and analysis of a blockchain with a Hotstuff consensus mechanism
    Yahya Shahsavari, Kaiwen Zhang, Chamseddine Talhi. IEEE BCCA 2022.
  • Towards a middleware design for efficient blockchain oracles selection
    Subhasish Goswami, Syed Muhammad Danish, Kaiwen Zhang. IEEE BCCA 2022.
  • Pupa: Smart Contracts for BPMN with Time-Dependent Events and Inclusive Gateways
    Rodrigue Tonga Naha, Kaiwen Zhang. BPM 2022 (Blockchain Forum).
  • Evaluating the Impact of Relay Nodes on Decentralization for the Bitcoin Blockchain Network
    Yahya Shahsavari, Kaiwen Zhang, Chamseddine Talhi. Frontiers in Blockchain.
  • FL-MAB: Client Selection and Monetization for Blockchain-Based Federated Learning
    Zahra Batool, Kaiwen Zhang, Matthew Toews. ACM SAC 2022. Acceptance rate: 22.29%.
  • Zipzap: A blockchain solution for local energy trading
    Mario Munoz, Kaiwen Zhang, Fatima Amara. IEEE ICBC 2022.
  • Early Detection for Multiversion Concurrency Control Conflicts in Hyperledger Fabric
    Helmi Trabelsi, Kaiwen Zhang. IEEE Crypto Valley Conference 2021.
  • BlockAIM: A Neural Network-Based Intelligent Middleware For Large-Scale IoT Data Placement Decisions
    Syed Muhammad Danish, Kaiwen Zhang, Hans-Arno Jacobsen. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing.
  • LogLog: A Blockchain Solution for Tracking and Certifying Wood Volumes
    Mario Munoz, Aamir Shahzad, Kaiwen Zhang, Mustapha Ouhimmou. IEEE ICBC 2021. Acceptance rate: 18.0%.
  • Privacy-Preserving Smart Grid Traceability using Blockchain over IoT Connectivity
    Aamir Shahzad, Kaiwen Zhang, Abdelouahed Gherbi. ACM SAC 2021.
  • BlockEV: Efficient and Secure Charging Station Selection for Electric Vehicles
    Syed Muhammad Danish, Kaiwen Zhang, Hans-Arno Jacobsen, Nouman Ashraf, Hassaan Khaliq Qureshi. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems.
  • Analysing the Benefit of Selfish Mining with Multiple Players
    Shiquan Zhang, Kaiwen Zhang, Bettina Kemme. IEEE Blockchain 2020. Acceptance rate: 16.0%.
  • On Delivery Guarantees in Distributed Content-Based Publish/Subscribe Systems
    Pooya Salehi, Kaiwen Zhang, Hans-Arno Jacobsen. ACM Middleware 2020. Acceptance rate: 25.2%.
  • Selective Auctioning using Publish/Subscribe for Real-Time Bidding
    Sonia Slimani, Kaiwen Zhang. WEBIST 2020.
  • Intuitive Development to Examine Collaborative IoT Supply Chain System Underlying Privacy and Security Levels and Perspective Powering through Proactive Blockchain
    Aamir Shahzad, Kaiwen Zhang, Abdelouahed Gherbi. MDPI Sensors.
  • A Theoretical Model for Block Propagation Analysis in Bitcoin Network
    Yahya Shahsavari, Kaiwen Zhang, Chamseddine Talhi. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management.
  • Monetization using Blockchains for IoT Data Marketplace
    Wiem Badreddine, Kaiwen Zhang, Chamseddine Talhi. IEEE ICBC 2020. Acceptance rate: 22.0%.
  • Securing the LoRaWAN Join Procedure using Blockchains
    Syed Muhammad Danish, Marios Lestas, Hassaan Khaliq Qureshi, Kaiwen Zhang, Waqar Asif, Muttukrishnan Rajarajan. Springer Cluster Computing Journal.
  • BlockAM: An Adaptive Middleware for Intelligent Data Storage Selection for Internet of Things
    Syed Muhammad Danish, Kaiwen Zhang, Hans-Arno Jacobsen. IEEE DAPPS 2020. Acceptance rate: 13.6%. Best Paper Award.
  • Linearize, Predict and Place: Minimizing the Makespan for Edge-based Stream Processing of Directed Acyclic Graphs
    Shweta Khare, Hongyang Sun, Julien Gascon-Samson, Kaiwen Zhang, Yogesh Barve, Anirban Bhattacharjee, Aniruddha Gokhale, Xenofon Koutsoukos. IEEE/ACM SEC 2019.
  • A Theoretical Model for Analysis of Firewalls Under Bursty Traffic Flows.
    Yahya Shahsavari, HadiShahriar Shahhoseini, Kaiwen Zhang, Halima Elbiaze. IEEE Access.
  • A Theoretical Model for Fork Analysis in the Bitcoin Network.
    Yahya Shahsavari, Kaiwen Zhang, Chamseddine Talhi. IEEE BLOCKCHAIN 2019. Acceptance rate: 25.9%.
  • Performance Modeling and Analysis of the Bitcoin Inventory Protocol.
    Yahya Shahsavari, Kaiwen Zhang, Chamseddine Talhi. IEEE DAPPCON 2019. Acceptance rate: 21.8%. Best Paper Award.
  • Scalable Edge Computing Architectures for Low Latency Data Dissemination in Topic-based Publish/Subscribe.
    Shweta Khare, Hongyang Sun, Kaiwen Zhang, Julien Gascon-Samson, Aniruddha Gokhale, Xenofon Koutsoukos. IEEE/ACM SEC 2018.
  • Multi-client Transactions in Distributed Publish/Subscribe Systems.
    Martin Jergler, Kaiwen Zhang, Hans-Arno Jacobsen. IEEE ICDCS 2018. Acceptance rate: 20.0%.
  • Towards Dependable, Scalable, and Pervasive Distributed Ledgers with Blockchains.
    Kaiwen Zhang, Hans-Arno Jacobsen. IEEE ICDCS 2018. Slides: PDF.
  • PopSub: Improving Resource Utilization in Distributed Content-based Publish/Subscribe Systems.
    Pooya Salehi, Kaiwen Zhang, Hans-Arno Jacobsen. ACM DEBS 2017. Acceptance rate: 23.0%.
  • Incremental Topology Transformation for Publish/Subscribe Systems Using Integer Programming.
    Pooya Salehi, Kaiwen Zhang, Hans-Arno Jacobsen. IEEE ICDCS 2017. Acceptance rate: 16.9%.
  • Efficient covering for top-k filtering in content-based publish/subscribe systems.
    Kaiwen Zhang, Mohammad Sadoghi, Vinod Muthusamy, Hans-Arno Jacobsen. ACM Middleware 2017. Acceptance rate: 24.0%.
  • Shared dictionary compression in publish/subscribe systems.
    Christoph Doblander, Tanuj Ghinaiya, Kaiwen Zhang, Hans-Arno Jacobsen. ACM DEBS 2016.
  • Minimizing the Communication Cost of Aggregation in Publish/Subscribe Systems.
    Navneet Kumar Pandey, Kaiwen Zhang, Stéphane Weiss, Hans-Arno Jacobsen, and Roman Vitenberg. IEEE ICDCS 2015. Acceptance rate: 13.0%.
  • Publish/Subscribe Network Designs for Multiplayer Games.
    César Cañas, Kaiwen Zhang, Bettina Kemme, Jörg Kienzle, and Hans-Arno Jacobsen. ACM Middleware 2014. Acceptance rate: 18.75%.
  • Distributed Event Aggregation for Content-based Publish/Subscribe Systems.
    Navneet Kumar Pandey, Kaiwen Zhang, Stéphane Weiss, Hans-Arno Jacobsen, and Roman Vitenberg. ACM DEBS 2014. Acceptance rate: 9.0%.
  • Distributed Ranked Data Dissemination in Social Networks.
    Kaiwen Zhang, Mohammad Sadoghi, Vinod Muthusamy, and Hans-Arno Jacobsen. IEEE ICDCS 2013. Acceptance rate: 13.0%.
  • Total Order in Content-based Publish/Subscribe Systems.
    Kaiwen Zhang, Vinod Muthusamy, and Hans-Arno Jacobsen. IEEE ICDCS 2012. Acceptance rate: 13.0%.
  • Transaction Models for Massively Multiplayer Online Games.
    Kaiwen Zhang, Bettina Kemme. IEEE SRDS 2011.

Selected Professional Service (of the PI)

Courses Offered

Join our group

We are looking for highly motivated students interested in systems research. Our research focuses mostly on industrial use cases, formulating theoretical problems based on practical applications, designing and implementing solutions, and evaluating them in a system testbed. Note that while classes are given in French at ÉTS, it is possible to conduct research and write the thesis in English or French. Classes may also be taken at other universities, including English-speaking ones. For more information on the graduate programs, please consult the ÉTS website. If interested, please send your CV and a statement of research interests to Dr. Kaiwen Zhang.

Current openings

  • General position openings: PDF.